Experts Offer Some Advice on How to Age Successfully

Published in Pawtucket Times, February 21, 2014

            As an aging baby boomer, the pains and aches of old age and my noticeable gray hair are obvious signs of getting closer to age 60.

            Amazing, being given a free donut with my large cup of coffee at Dunkin Donuts, an AARP member benefit, is a clear reminder to me of how people may perceive my chronological age.  When I pulled out my wallet to get my membership card, the employee said, “Don’t worry, your covered.”  Simply put, by having gray hair it was obvious to the young woman that I was eligible to get the free donut.

            The aches and pains of getting older happen more often, too.   After spraining my ankle from a fall on a sheet of ice, while taking out my garbage, it took much longer for this injury to heal.  Most recently, a sharp pain in my hip makes me wonder if hip replacement surgery could be in my future.

            Even like me, President Barack Obama has shown his age by his gray hair and is even beginning to publicly complain about his aches and pains, because of living over five decades.

            The 52- year- old President told retired National Basketball Association star Charles Barkley in a recent interview that he was limiting his trip to the basketball court to once a month because “things happen.”

             “One is, you just get a little older and creakier. The second thing is, you’ve got to start thinking about elbows and you break your nose right before a State of the Union address,” said the 52-year-old president in the interview on the TNT network before the NBA All-Star Game.

             Discussing the aging process during an exchange about his signature healthcare reform law, Obama said that being past 50, “you wake up and something hurts and you don’t know exactly what happened, right?”

 Taking Control of the Aging Process

             Of course, President Obama’s complaints about getting old went viral. Approaching two Rhode Island gerontologists and a geriatric physician, this columnist gives the middle aged President tips on easing into his old age.

            Phillip G. Clark, ScD,  Director, URI Program in Gerontology and Rhode Island Geriatric Education Center and Professor, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, notes that some research has indicated that the decade between 50 and 60 is when many people start getting “messages” that they are getting older. These can be physical, psychological, familial, and social.

             “A lot are based on the messages that they receive from those around them, including the media (“if you’re older than 50, you should be taking Centrum Silver, or you qualify for this special type of life insurance policy,” adds Clark. “These messages may not reflect an accurate picture of what normal aging really is, but rather a biased and stereotypical portrait,” he says, for example, supposed bodily reminders of aging, such as aches and pains, may be due more to lack of exercise rather than actual aging itself.

             To successfully age, “stay physically active” says Clark, suggesting that you get an assessment from your physician.  This helps both your body and your brain. A moderately brisk, 30-minute walk a day is all you need, he notes.  “It’s more important that you build physical activity into your daily routine and do something that you enjoy and can stick with, than spend a lot of money on a gym membership that you seldom use,” he says.  Eating a diet that is high in fruits and vegetables is also important as part of a healthy lifestyle at any age.

             Clark also recommends that aging baby boomers stay engaged with settings and activities that keep them involved in life through their faith community, family and friends. Even having a sense of purpose in life that gets you outside of yourself, through volunteering, can help you age more gracefully, he adds, stressing that having a social network and people who care about and support you are essential elements of successful aging at any age.

             But don’t forget to “have a positive attitude and keep a sense of humor,” warns Clark. According to the gerontologist, this can get you over the challenges and hurdles you may encounter.  “Being resilient in the face of the challenges of life and getting older demands that we see the positive side of situations and not get bogged down in focusing on what we no longer have. We need to emphasize what we can do to keep the enjoyment in our lives.”

             Successful aging may not be swimming the English Channel at age 80, noted Brown University Professor of Medicine and of Health Services, Richard Bresdine, Director of Brown’s Center for Gerontology and Healthcare Research and Director of the Division of Geriatrics in the Department of Medicine.  However, for the general population, successful aging, that is “optimum physical cognitive functioning, rests on your genes, education and life experiences,” he says, not accomplishing great feats like swimming the English Channel.

            While the Brown University geriatrician agrees with Clark about the impact of exercise and social networks on improving your health and longevity, he also sees other ways to increase the quality of your aging.

 Strategies to an Improved Life Style

             According to Besdine, a majority of people with high blood pressure don’t take medication to control it.  This chronic condition can cause strokes.  Smoking does not just cause lung cancer, “but every type of cancer and chronic lung disease, “one of the worst ways to die on this planet.”

             Driving safely can increase your lifespan and quality of aging.  As one ages your eyesight may change, glare becomes a problem, and you lose flexibility to turn.  Retraining programs, offered by AARP and AAA, can reduce the probability of having an accident, says Besdine.

             Don’t forget your pneumonia or influenza vaccination, warns Besdine.  Having repeated occurrences of the flu can lead to heart disease and other health issues, he says.

             A good nutritional diet is key to enhancing the quality of health in your later years, notes Besdine, but people living on fixed incomes may not be able to afford eating fruits, vegetables and lean meats.  Cooking for yourself may even lead to a decision to not make nutritional meals.  Besdine is also a big advocate of the Mediterranean diet, a heart-healthy eating plan that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds, and healthy fats.  He notes that this diet reduces your chances of getting heart disease and diabetes.

             Besdine also notes that there are simple things that you can do at home to increase your longevity and quality of life.  Make sure your home is safe, equipped with fire and carbon monoxide detectors.  Rid your kitchen of toxic substances.  He urges a “gun free” home. “This is not a political statement. Research shows us that a person is much more likely of being shot by a gun that is kept at home,” he says.

             Screening for cancers (by scheduling a mammogram and/or colonoscopy) and depression, along with moderate drinking, good oral health care, and preventing osteoporosis by taking calcium and Vitamin D, even reducing adverse drug reactions and improving mobility, are simple ways to increase the chances of your successful aging, Besdine says.

 Unraveling Research Findings

             Rachel Filinson, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology/Gerontology Coordinator at Rhode Island College, says the “devil may well be in the details,” as older persons try to unravel research findings that might provide them with a clear road maps to achieve successful aging.

             For instance, Filinson notes that while some gerontologist have long regarded “under nutrition,” that is the consuming relatively few calories to sustain oneself,” as a way to increase one’s longevity, others disagree with the theory.

             Meanwhile, mental stimulation is believed by many to deter cognitive decline, Filinson says, but brain teasers and games have not been adequately proven by research findings, she adds, while reading and writing may be helpful.

             Although a large social network and recreational pursuits have been lauded as essential to enhance the quality of aging, some investigations have found that solitary activities like gardening are just as effective, observes Filinson.

             In that science can be a work in progress, Filinson believes that older adults can take charge of their lives by optimizing the positives and minimizing the negatives–how we age.  “It’s about the choices we make in life rather than the genes we were born with,” she quips.

             President Obama might well listen to Clarke, Besdine, and Filinson’s sage advice as to how he can cope with the aging process. Even small changes in his daily,  mundane routines, like using the stairs rather than taking an elevator in the White House or even taking Bo, the first family’s dog, for a brief walk around the grounds, can result in his living longer, even reduce his noticeable aches and pains.

              Herb Weiss, LRI ’12, is a Pawtucket-based writer covering aging, health care and medical issues.  He can be reached at hweissri@aol.com.

The Best of…Experts: Eat Less, Exercise

             Published January 2007, Senior Digest

            As we begin the New Year, many people launch promises through New Year’s resolutions or take this time to reflect on overall better lifestyle improvements.    State aging and health care experts say that if your goal is to live longer, consider squeezing in time to enhance your fitness and health through ongoing exercise and better eating.

           Phillip G. Clark, ScD, Professor and Director Program in Gerontology and Rhode Island Geriatric Education Center, notes that exercise is key to living a healthier life.  “Use it or lose it,” he tells Senior Digest.   If older adults don’t continue to use their capabilities, whether physical or mental, they may eventually lose those abilities. So, it is important for aging baby boomers and seniors to continue to be as active as they can, within the limits of any impairments or health problems they may have.

           Before beginning any program always check with your doctor to be sure it is okay. “Your doctor will advise you on other special conditions or limitations you may need to address in developing your own program,” Dr. Clark says.

Exercise, the Best Pill

          Dr. Clark believes that exercise is the “best pill,” Regular exercise for older adults are linked to all sorts of positive physical and mental health outcomes and advantages, he says.  People just feel better physically and mentally especially if they exercise properly on a regular basis.

          The University of Rhode Island (URI) gerontologist compares physical activity to a savings account.  Dr. Clark says, “If you ‘put’ deposits into your exercise savings on a regular basis, you can ‘draw’ on these when you are sick or have to hospitalized to help minimize the impact of any setback on your functioning.”  

          To exercise, costly weight machines and bikes are not necessary, Clark says.  “Keep it simple,” Dr. Clark recommends.  “For many older adults, just walking regularly can have a number of positive benefits. In the winter when the weather is bad, some folks walk around inside their local senior housing building or at the mall,” he says.

             Deb Riebe, PhD., a Professor in URI’s Department to Kinesiology, says that research has found resistance training is another viable option for aging baby boomers and seniors to consider staying fit.  .

 Consider Resistance Training and Balance Exercises

             The URI exercise physiologist notes that muscle strength peaks at age 30 for most people.  After age 50, there is a real decline in muscle strength.  By your 60s or 70s, if you don’t exercise or participate in a resistance training program it will become more difficult to perform simple activities of daily living, like carrying the vacuum cleaner or groceries, says Riebe.

             Strengthening your muscles can be done simply by lifting small hand weights that can purchased in local stores, adds Riebe, noting that you can use your own body weight to strengthen your muscles in your legs by sitting in your dining room and than standing up.  Perform this simple resistance training exercise 10 times.

             “Balance exercises are also very good to prevent a person from falling.  “A good example of a balance exercise is to stand up on one leg using a chair for support,” she says.  

             Don’t use lack of time as a reason to not exercise, warns Riebe.  “Fit 30 or 40 minutes of exercise into your daily routine.  But for those who chose not to you can always park your car far away from a store and walk a little longer distance.  Or you do a few exercises during a television commercial, “combining leisure with a quick work out,” she says.

              Even when socializing with friends or family, Riebe recommends going out and taking a walk around the neighborhood.  “Everyone will benefit,” she says… 

               Anne Marie Connolly, MS, Director of Rhode Island’s Get Fit Rhode Island, Program, oversees Governor Donald Carcieri’s worksite wellness initiative for state employees.  Programs like Rhode Island’s are being launched nationwide by the mandate of state health commissioners and insurance companies attempting to reel in spiraling health care costs. 

               To improve health behavior, brochures, on site lectures (controlling stress and high blood pressure) and behavior change classes (physical exercise and smoking cessation) are aimed at the 20,000 state workers, whose average age is 47 years old.

 Good Nutrition Important, Too

              Connolly, a professor and research associate at URI’s Kinesiology Department stresses the importance that nutrition plays in maintaining one’s good health.  “Research tells us that people should eat smaller portions, increase their fruit and vegetable and decrease fat, high calorie foods and sweets from their diet,” she recommends.

              For persons with high blood pressure, heart disease or diabetes, consider asking your physician for a consult to see a nutritionist.  Connolly notes that this visit is covered by most of health insurance companies.  “A change in your diet can make significant improvements in many chronic conditions.” 

              Connolly observes that some people don’t buy vegetables and fruits because of cost.  “Look around for supermarkets that offer smaller packaging or portions of vegetables and fruits. Salad and fruit bars enable a person to buy to portion or quantity they need,”: she says.  Even in senior housing, you can work with others to buy cheaply.  Split a head of lettuce with a neighbor. Create a schedule to rotate the purchasing of fruits and vegetables, too.   

              As to exercise, Connolly suggests people start off slowly, more important find an exercise that you will like to do.  As a consultant to Club Med, she came to believe that exercise should be fun and not a chore.  “Look back and see what you did when you were younger,” Connolly adds.  “One woman who took tap dancing in her younger years picked it up again.  It does not have to have to be the same intensity as when you were younger.”   

              For persons with arthritis, try going to a local senior center or YMCA and enroll in exercise programs specifically designed for that chronic condition.  “Water exercise is extremely wonderful for people with arthritis,” she says.

               Connolly notes that some Medicare providers even give special discounts for senior citizens who join health care club chains, costing the older person just $10.00 per month.  Check out your Medicare health care plan’s benefits to see if you are eligible to participate.

              Experts agree that the exercise benefits both young and old. “What is remarkable about the human body, people of all ages respond to physical exercise in the same way,” Connolly says.  .

               Herb Weiss is a Pawtucket-based writer whose articles on health, medical and aging issue.  This article was published in January 2007 in Senior Digest. He can be reached at hweissri@aol.com.